هٰذا المَسْجِدُ الَّذِي بَناهُ إِسْحٰقُ فِي الشَّامِ هُوَ بَيْتُ المُقَدِّسِ
1. The first thing to ask, is are we dealing with a جملة إسمية or a جملة فعلية ?
- It starts with هذا which is an إسم so this is a جملة إسمية, and therefore we know that there must be a مبتدا and a خبر
- هذا is an إسم الإشارة, and so it must have a مشار إليه which is obviously المَسْجِدُ
- BUT, there is a description of المَسْجِدُ following it, because of the الّذي
- So we already know that the …الّذي هذا المَسْجِدُ all together is going to be the مبتدا of the main sentence.
2. Looking at المَسْجِدُ and it’s description we see that:
- المَسْجِدُ is a definite noun, and so must be described by a definite adjective. That is to say, we have a صفة - موصوف combination in which the صفة must be definite
- The صفة is not a single word, but a sentence, and we know that sentences are by default indefinite, therefore we have to have الّذي which makes the descriptive sentence “ بَناهُ إِسْحٰقُ فِي الشَّامِ ”, definite.
- So now we have المَسْجِدُ as the موصوف and بَناهُ إِسْحٰقُ فِي الشَّامِ الّذي as the صفة
3. The صفة breaks down as follows:
- الّذي is إسم موصول and the rest of the phrase is صلة
- The صلة is comprised of a sentence as follows:
i. It is a جملة فعلية because it begins with the verb بنى
ii. The attached pronoun ه is the مفعول به
iii. إِسْحٰقُ is the فاعل
iv. في الشام is a description of where the action of بنى took place, and so we call this حرف جر- مجرور combination “متعلقﺑ بنى ”
4. So now we see how the صلة as a جملة فعلية combines with the إسم موصول to become the definite adjectiveصفة describing المَسْجِدُ. This completes the analysis of the first part of the sentence, as we have now completely identified the مبتدا.
5. Now we examine the خبر : هُوَ بَيْتُ المُقَدِّسِ
- It begins with an إسم and is made up of more than one word, so it must be a جملة إسمية, with هُوَ as the مبتدا.- بَيْتُ المُقَدِّسِ is a simple مضاف – مضاف إليه construction which becomes the خبر for هُوَ.- This gives us a complete جملة إسمية which is the خبر for the main sentence.
6. This خبر combined with the مبتدا derived in steps 1-4 gives us the definition of the entire sentence as a
جملة إسمية خبرية.
Taken from a friend.
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